Tripartite Theory of Soul
Plato's Republic, Socrates, Pythagoras' philosophy
and much more ...
…can we possibly refuse to admit that there exist in each
of us the same generic parts and characteristics as are found in
the state? For I presume the state has not received them from any
other source. It would be ridiculous to imagine that the presence
of the spirited element in cities is not to be traced to
individuals, wherever this character is imputed to the people, as
it is to the natives of Thrace, and Scythia, and generally
speaking, of the northern countries; or the love of knowledge,
which would be chiefly attributed to our own country; or the love
of riches, which people would especially connect with the
Phoenicians and the Egyptians.
Tripartite Soul Theory related dialogue attributed to Socrates in Plato's - The Republic, Book 4.
The stunningly insight~full Playwright and Poet, William Shakespeare, has something worthwhile to contribute to this review of notable
authorities that effectively endorse a Tripartite presentation to Human Nature:
There's neither honesty, manhood, nor good-fellowship in thee.
William Shakespeare: Henry IV (Pt 1), Act I, Scene II
This content of this page is being presented in order to offer a brief familiarisation with the support
being offered by several well-regarded authorities to the Tripartite presentation of Human Nature which is set out here and there
in Plato's most important work - The Republic.
If the truth is told it is Philosophy (Pythagoras and
Socrates / Plato's tripartite theory of the soul) rather than Religion, Science or Literature that is generally seen as having the strongest
tradition of endorsing a Tripartite Soul theory of Human Nature. That being said full suggestion of a "tripartite presentation" to
"Existential" Human Being can also be found in science-based studies in Psychology and in the works of such
highly-regarded men-of-letters as William Shakespeare and Ralph Waldo Emerson.
Pythagoras lived in even earlier times of Ancient Greece than Socrates or Plato. Nevertheless he advanced a similar
Tripartite view of human nature to that suggested in Socratic Dialogues in Plato's widely influential works.
life of man seemed to him to resemble the festival
which was celebrated with most magnificent games before a concourse collected from the whole of Greece; for
at this festival some men whose bodies had been trained sought to win the glorious distinction of a crown,
others were attracted by the prospect of making gain by buying or selling, whilst there was on the other
hand a certain class, and that quite the best class of free-born men, who looked neither for applause nor
gain, but came for the sake of the spectacle and closely watched what was done and how it was done. So also
we, as though we had come from some city to a kind of crowded festival, leaving in like fashion another
life and nature of being, entered upon this life, and some were slaves of ambition, some of money; there
were a special few who, counting all else as nothing, ardently contemplated the nature of things. These men
he would call "lovers of wisdom" (for that is the meaning of the word philosopher); …
Ralph Waldo Emerson
Cicero, Tusculan Disputations, V, Loeb Classical Library. P. 433
In all districts of all lands, in all the classes of communities thousands of minds are intently occupied, the merchant in his compting house, the mechanist over his plans, the statesman
at his map, his treaty, & his tariff, the scholar in the skilful history & eloquence of antiquity, each stung to the quick with the desire of exalting himself to a hasty & yet unfound
height above the level of his peers. Each is absorbed in the prospect of good accruing to himself but each is no less contributing to the utmost of his ability to fix & adorn human
Christianity and FOUR MORE World Religions
In William H. Gilman (ed.) The Journals and Miscellaneous Notebooks of Ralph Waldo Emerson, vol II, 1822-1826, 305
It is one of those fables which out of an unknown antiquity convey an unlooked-for wisdom, that the gods, in the beginning, divided Man into men, that
he might be more helpful to himself; just as the hand was divided into fingers, the better to answer its end.
The old fable covers a doctrine ever new and sublime; that there is One Man,--present to all particular men only partially, or through one faculty; and that
you must take the whole society to find the whole man. Man is
not a farmer, or a professor, or an engineer, but he is all. Man is priest, and
scholar, and statesman, and producer, and soldier. In the divided or
social state these functions are parcelled out to individuals, each of whom aims
to do his stint of the joint work, whilst each other performs his. The fable implies that the individual, to possess himself, must sometimes return from his
own labor to embrace all the other laborers. But, unfortunately, this original unit, this fountain of power, has been so distributed to multitudes, has
been so minutely subdivided and peddled out, that it is spilled into drops, and cannot be gathered.
Ralph Waldo Emerson - (from his ~ The American Scholar address)
Teachings can be identified in the texts of such World Religions as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism which
can be seen as being accepting of a "Tripartism" to existential Human Being.
That is to say that there are indications in the teachings of each of these Major World Religions that "Spirituality" can be regarded as being
- to "Desire", and to "Wrath".
This Interfaith agreement can surely be taken as tending to contribute significant justification to an
acceptance that highly important truths are to be associated with Tripartite Soul Theory.
An highly important Christian teaching - The Parable of the Sower - will now be considered:
The Parable of the Sower
The Parable of the Sower is, perhaps, the most "Enlightenment-related" teaching of Jesus!!!
Again Jesus began to teach by the lake. The crowd that gathered around him was so large that he got into a boat and sat in it out on the
lake, while all the people were along the shore at the water's edge. He taught them many things by parables, and in his teaching said:
"Listen! A farmer went out to sow his seed. As he was scattering the seed, some fell along the path, and the birds came and ate it up.
Some fell on rocky places, where it did not have much soil. It sprang up quickly, because the soil was shallow. But when the sun came
up, the plants were scorched, and they withered because they had no root. Other seed fell among thorns, which grew up and choked the
plants, so that they did not bear grain. Still other seed fell on good soil. It came up, grew and produced a crop, some multiplying
thirty, some sixty, some a hundred times."
Then Jesus said, "Whoever has ears to hear, let them hear." ...
... Then Jesus said to them, "Don't you understand this parable? How then will you understand any parable? The farmer sows
the word. Some people are like seed along the path, where the word is sown. As soon as they hear it, Satan comes and
takes away the word that was sown in them. Others, like seed sown on rocky places, hear the word and at once receive
it with joy. But since they have no root, they last only a short time. When trouble or persecution comes because of
the word, they quickly fall away. Still others, like seed sown among thorns, hear the word; but the worries of
this life, the deceitfulness of wealth and the desires for other things come in and choke the word, making it unfruitful.
Others, like seed sown on good soil, hear the word, accept it, and produce a crop - some thirty, some sixty, some a hundred times what was sown.
He said to them, "Do you bring in a lamp to put it under a bowl or a bed? Instead, don't you put it on its stand? For whatever is hidden is meant
to be disclosed, and whatever is concealed is meant to be brought out into the open. If anyone has ears to hear, let them hear."
Jesus' teaching ~ as set out in St Mark's Gospel, Chapter 4
The Parable of the Sower actually features in three of the four, primary, "Canonical" Gospels, (i.e. of Matthew, Mark, Luke and John), - such that it is possible to attempt to derive deeper
meaning by presenting the following alternative ending ~
"But the seed on good soil stands for those with a noble and good heart, who hear the word, retain it, and by persevering produce a crop.
No one lights a lamp and hides it in a clay jar or puts it under a bed. Instead, they put it on a stand, so that those who come in can see the
light. For there is nothing hidden that will not be disclosed, and nothing concealed that will not be known or brought out into the open."
Jesus' teaching ~ as set out in St Luke's Gospel, Chapter 8
This "Parable of the Sower" could be said to suggest that Enlightenment does not appear to be Intellectual but may
principally arise from keeping to spiritual teachings!!!
A yet more important Christian Teaching - the Sermon on the Mount - can be shown to similarly offer implicit support to a recognition
of Existential Tripartism. Teachings can also be found in Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism and Sikhism which are similarly suggestive of
The following link leads to a page where support for an acceptance of Existential Tripartism is offered by ALL of these major World Relgions.
Science (i.e. Psychology)
Scientific studies can also be held to have identified a Tripartite Soul Theory-related presentation of Human Nature
Further details of two of these can be found at our partner site - Age-of-the-Sage:
Readers comments welcome to bri060new @t gmail.com.
Is Human Being more truly Metaphysical than Physical?
[Please be aware that replies are not guaranteed, however]
Where this could, possibly, lead ...
N. B. The page mentioned in the graphic ~ roots.asp ~ has been replaced,
(on our partner site www.age-of-the-sage.org),
by this page
This 'knot of roots' insight features in:
In defence of this Church, Mosque, Shrine, Synagogue and Temple "co-presentation".
Some truly extra-ordinary wisdoms
~ a brief selection of "Central Spiritual Insights"
gleaned from Christian sources closely followed by another brief selection of "Central Spiritual Insights" drawn from "non-Christian"
Inter-Faith sources ~ are set out below!
A selection of "Central Spiritual Insights" gleaned from Christian sources
These Christian quotations have been selected based on their inherent Spiritual Impact, (rather than whether they might be deemed to be
Catholic, Protestant or Orthodox), and come from The New International Version of The Bible.
- A Disdain for Materialism
Whosoever will come after me, let him deny himself, and take up his cross, and follow me. For whosoever will save his life shall lose it; but whosoever shall lose his life for my sake and the gospel's, the same shall save it. For what shall it profit a man, if he shall gain the whole world, and lose his own soul?
- A Distrust of Intellect
- So I tell you this, and insist on it in the Lord, that you must no longer live as the Gentiles do, in the futility of their thinking.
They are darkened in their understanding and separated from the life of God because of the ignorance that is in them due to the hardening
of their hearts.
- Spiritual Insights are possible!
- What we have received is not the spirit of the world, but the Spirit who is from God, so that we may understand what God has freely
given us. This is what we speak, not in words taught us by human wisdom but in words taught by the Spirit, explaining spiritual realities
with Spirit-taught words. The person without the Spirit does not accept the things that come from the Spirit of God but considers them
foolishness, and cannot understand them because they are discerned only through the Spirit.
- Dear friends, let us love one another, for love comes from God. Everyone who loves has been born of God and knows God. Whoever does
not love does not know God, because God is love.
- Purity of Heart
- Do everything without grumbling or arguing, so that you may become blameless and pure, "children of God without fault in a warped and
crooked generation." Then you will shine among them like stars in the sky as you hold firmly to the word of life...
- Nor are you to be called 'teacher,' for you have one Teacher, the Christ. The greatest among you will be your servant. For
whoever exalts himself will be humbled, and whoever humbles himself will be exalted.
- Therefore, my beloved brethren, let every man be swift to hear, slow to speak, slow to wrath; for the wrath of man worketh not the
righteousness of God.
"Central Spiritual Insights" drawn from "non-Christian" Inter-Faith sources
Our world seems to be becoming more and more "globalised" presenting us with new challenges of co-existence between cultural communities and of toleration between faith communities!
Extensive studies have been conducted into Comparative Spirituality by ourselves and were actually undertaken before 2000 A.D. and hence prior to that difficult situation,
often overstated as being an actual "Clash of Cultures," that has (however that situation should be depicted) been all too evident in recent years.
As such these studies will hopefully qualify to be considered as having adopted a somewhat open and unprejudiced consideration of the spiritual teachings of
such major World Religions as Christianity, Islam, Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, Taoism and Judaism.
In the following brief overview one or two quotes are presented from Buddhist, Hindu, Islamic, Jewish, Sikh and Taoist sources respectively.
Such inclusivity as this is quite clearly necessary in any genuine attempt to present a wide-ranging and profound overview of non-Christian spiritual insights.
Those inclined to look further into Comparative Religion Spirituality can find links to more detailed studies at the end of this initial presentation.
- A Disdain for Materialism
- Chuang Tzu put on cotton clothes with patches in them, and
arranging his girdle and tying on his shoes,
(i.e. to keep them from falling off),
went to see the prince of Wei.
"How miserable you look, Sir!" Cried the prince. "It is poverty,
not misery," replied Chuang Tzu. "A man who has TAO cannot be
miserable. Ragged clothes and old boots make poverty, not
Chuang Tzu - (Taoism)
- A Distrust of Intellect
- Sell your cleverness and buy bewilderment; Cleverness is mere
opinion, bewilderment intuition.
Rumi - (Sufism ~ a notably mystical, minority, tradition associable with both Sunni and Shia Islam)
- Spiritual Insights are possible!
- The intelligence of the mean man does not rise beyond bribes and letters of
recommendation. His mind is beclouded with trivialities. Yet he would penetrate the
mystery of TAO and of creation, and rise to participation in the ONE. The result is
that he is confounded by time and space; and that trammelled by objective existences,
that he fails apprehension of that age before anything was.
But the perfect man, - he carries his mind back to the period before the beginning.
Content to rest in the oblivion of nowhere, passing away like flowing water, he is
merged in the clear depths of the infinite.
Chuang Tzu - (Taoism)
- He that does everything for Me, whose supreme object I am, who
worships Me, being free from attachment and without hatred to any
creature, this man, Arjuna!, comes to Me.
Bhagavad Gita ~ (Hinduism) ~ also known as ~ (Vedanta).
And my soul is absorbed
In the Love of My Lord.
Bow humbly to the saint
That is a pious act.
Bow to the ground before him
That is devotion, indeed.
The faithless know not,
The joy of the love of the Lord;
From Sohila-Arti ~ a bed-time prayer
This section of which is attributed to Guru Ram Das - (Sikhism)
- Purity of Heart
- The path of the just is as the shining light, that shineth more
and more unto the perfect day. The way of the wicked is as
darkness: they know not at what they stumble.
Solomon - (Judaism)
- Would you become a pilgrim on the road of love? The first
condition is that you make yourself humble as dust and ashes.
Ansari of Herat - (Islam)
- Let a man overcome anger by love, let him overcome evil by good;
let him overcome the greedy by liberality, the liar by truth!
Speak the truth, do not yield to anger; give, if thou art asked
for little; by these three steps thou wilt go near the gods.
Dhammapada - (Buddhism)
The following linked pages, (available on our partner site age-of-the-sage.org), are intended to more fully demonstrate a degree of
Common Ground between the Inner-most Spiritual Teachings of several major World Religions on Charity, Purity of
Heart, Humility, Meekness, A Disdain for Materialism
(compared to the Spiritual), A Distrust of the Intellect
(compared to Divine Inspiration) and A Yearning
for Divine Edification
(or A Thirst for Spiritual Enlightenment).
These quotations are presented on a series of very
brief pages where each faith is considered individually.
seen it as worthwhile to add
another category of quotation ~ where recognition has been given "by the wise and holy of several faiths" to the possibility of Mystical Communion
Key sources supportive of Tripartite Theory of Soul